22.11 Which of the following communication mechanisms is designed to improve upward communication?
A Notice boards
B Organisation manual
C Team meetings
D Team briefings(2 marks)
22.12 What is the technical term given to a fault in the communication process where the meaning of the
message is lost'in translation'from intention to language,or from language to understanding?
D Feedback(2 marks)
22.11 C Rationale:Notice boards are unsuitable for upward communication,and organisation manuals and team briefings are for downward communication.
Pitfalls:You needed to be aware of the nature of a team briefing,which is for information and instructions to be given(downward)to a team.
22.12 C Rationale:Noise is the other main type of communication problem:interferences in the environment in which communication takes place,affecting the clarity,accuracy or arrival of the message.Redundancy is a positive principle in this context:you can use more than one form of communication,so that if one message does not get through(perhaps because of noise or distortion),another may.Feedback is an essential part of the communication cycle:it is the response which indicates to the sender whether the message has been correctly received.