ACCA机考:2018年ACCA考试科目F8如何备考? 修改之后的审计报告有哪些重大变化?

时间:2018年04月11 10:10

ACCA机考:2018年ACCA考试科目F8如何备考? 修改之后的审计报告有哪些重大变化?考试过程中整理的资料(精简版),可以分享给小伙伴,自提,戳:ACCA资料【重点精简版】+内部讲义+解析音频

  1、THE NEW AUDITOR'S REPORT新审计报告Relevant to F8 and P7,在2015年之后,国际审计委员会(IAASB),对有关审计报告的审计准则进行了修改和增加,包括ISA570持续经营和其他一些国际审计准则(ISA)。
 
  2、参加F8和P7考试的考生需要对审计报告相关的审计准则有深入的理解,这些修改之后的和新增的审计准则将加入到2016年9月之后的考试内容。
 
  考生需注意:修改之后的审计报告发生了重大的变化。
 
  这篇文章的内容主要包括新准则ISA 701 CommunicatingKey Audit Matters in the Independent Auditor’s Report的要求,ISA701和其他审计报告相关准则(ISA 705 and 706)的关系,以及修改之后的ISA 570 Going concern的一系列新要求。
 
  针对这些变化,对考生提出了以下这些要求:
 
  描述审计报告中的元素
 
  根据案例给出恰当的审计意见
 
  理解什么情况下需要有“Emphasis of Matter or Other Matter paragraph”,判断哪些情况下,审计报告中需要包含Key Audit Matters(KAM):
 
  1、在F8和P7考试中,考生不需要去起草一份审计师的报告,但会要求考生解释为什么给出unmodified opinion,或modified opinion,或为什么要有Emphasis of Matter paragraph。
 
  2、F8考生需对revised ISA 700,Forming an Opinion and Reporting onFinancial Statements有深入的理解,可以识别和描述审计报告中的元素。
 
  3、P7考生需学会判断一笔交易或者一系列交易或者事项是否是关键审计事项(Key Audit Matters)
 
  考试中也会给出一个审计报告中的一部分内容,让考生去评价是否给出了恰当的审计报告。因此针对考纲中这部分相关内容,考生必须要有深入的理解,这部分内容确实有一定挑战性。
 
  KEYAUDIT MATTERS(KAM)(新加入的内容)
 
  2015年1月,IAASB issuedISA 701,Communicating Key Audit Matters in the Independent Auditor’s Report.要求所有上市公司遵循该准则。
 
  ISA 701要求审计师:
 
  判断哪些事项是Key Audit Matters,在审计报告中沟通KAM。
 
  关键审计事项定义:
 
  关键审计事项(KAM)是审计师根据职业判断,认为对本期财务报表审计最为重要的事项。关键审计事项需向治理层沟通。
 
  DETERMINATION OF KAM
 
  ISA 701准则第八段中,关键审计事项的定义是那些需要和治理层沟通的事项。与治理层讨论之后,审计师进行评估和判断,在审计过程中需要特别注意的事项。
 
  以下是三点判定标准:
 
  依据ISA 315(Revised),Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement throughUnderstanding the Entity and Its Environment.
 
  评估出的容易出现重大错报的地方或识别出的重大风险
 
  财务报表中涉及重大管理层判断(可能包括具有高度不确定性的会计估计)的领域
 
  本期发生的重大交易或事项对审计的影响
 
  审计师必须确定哪些事项对财务报表的影响是最重大的,这些将被视为KAM。
 
  COMMUNICATING KAM
 
  审计师判定的KAM,必须确保在审计报告中恰当地描述每个事项,包括:
 
  为什么被判定为KAM
 
  该事项在审计中是如何应对的
 
  REPORTING IN LINE WITH ISA 570,GOING CONCERN
 
  考试中可能会要求考生识别出一个公司不能持续经营的迹象,或者给出一个scenario,要求考生给出适当的审计意见。
 
  可能会出现这种情况:根据题目的描述,考生给出的审计意见是持续经营具有重大不确定性,董事们应当作出适当的披露,对于这种情况,新准则提出了新的要求。
 
  修改之前的ISA 570,GoingConcern要求:
 
  如果审计师的结论是持续经营假设是恰当的,但是存在重大不确定性,那么需要在财务报表中做到充分披露,在审计报告中紧接着意见段,需加入“Emphasis of Matter paragraph”参照财务报表中的相关披露进行说明。
 
  即使存在重大不确定性,只要做到了充分披露,审计师需强调审计意见还是unmodified opinion。
 
  针对这种情况,修改之后的ISA 570(Revised),Going Concern发生了变化:
 
  1、审计师依然给出unmodifiedopinion,Emphasis of Matter paragraph已经不需要了,但是要在审计报告中加入一部分‘Material Uncertainty Related to Going Concern’,这部分内容包括:
 
  关注财务报表中对于重大不确定性的披露
 
  声明针对持续经营的重大不确定性,审计师的意见仍然是unmodified opinion。
 
  2、MaterialUncertainty Related to Going Concern’这部分内容是在Basis for Opinion paragraph之后,并且在KAM paragraph之前。
 
  如果财务报表中没有做到充分披露,依照ISA 705,审计师需修改审计意见
 
  与持续关注有关的问题可能被认为是关键的审计事项,因此需要在审计报告中进行沟通。如果审计师已经确定了对持续经验的质疑,但没有审计证据确认存在不确定性存在,这“close call”依照ISA 701,这种情况叫做“close call”,需要进行披露。
 
  这是因为当审计师给出没有重大不确定性的结论时,他们可能会判定一个或多个和这个结论相关的事项是关键审计事项(KAM)。
 
  例如:持续的经营损失、借贷、融资去还债,或贷款协议违约等等。
 
  总结:
 
  如果确认存在重大不确定性,必须依照ISA570进行充分披露。
 
  如果出现“close all”,被审计师判定为KAM,必须依照ISA 701进行充分披露。
 
  Example–unmodified audit opinion but material uncertainty exists inrelation to going concern and the disclosures are adequate,Report on the Audit of the Financial Statements(extract)。
 
  Opinion
 
  In our opinion,theaccompanying financial statements present fairly,in all material respects
 
  thefinancial position of the Company as at 31 December 2015,and its financialperformance and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance withInternational Financial Reporting Standards(IFRSs).
 
  Basis for opinion
 
  We conducted ouraudit in accordance with International Standards on Auditing(ISAs).
 
  Ourresponsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditor’sResponsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements section of our report.We are independent of the Company in accordance with the ethical requirementsthat are relevant to our audit of the financial statements in Farland,and wehave fulfilled our other ethical responsibilities in accordance with theserequirements.
 
  We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficientand appropriate to provide a basis for our opinion.
 
  Material uncertainty related to going concern
 
  We draw attention toNote 6 in the financial statements,which indicates that the Company incurred anet loss of$125,000 during the year ended 31 December 2015 and
 
  as of thatdate,the Company’s current liabilities exceeded its total assets by$106,000.As stated in Note 6,these events or conditions,along with other matters asset forth in Note 6
 
  indicate that a material uncertainty exists that may castsignificant doubt on the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.Ouropinion is not modified in respect of this matter.
 
  Keyaudit matters
 
  Key audit matters arethose matters that,in our professional judgment,were of most significance inour audit of the financial statements of the current period.
 
  These matters wereaddressed in the context of our audit of the financial statements as a whole,and in forming our opinion thereon,and we do not provide a separate opinion onthese matters.
 
  In addition tothe matter described in the Material Uncertainty Related to Going Concernsection,we have determined the matters described below to be the key auditmatters to be communicated in our report.
 
  [Include adescription of each key audit matter]
 
  APPLICATION OF ISA 701 WHEN A QUALIFIED OR ADVERSE OPINION IS ISSUED
 
  当审计师给出modifiedopinion时,修改后的ISA705(Revised)要求:
 
  审计报告中包括Basis for Qualified/Adverse Opinion section。
 
  当审计师给出qualified or adverse opinion时,审计报告中扔然要包括关键审计事项KAM section。
 
  当审计师给出adverse opinion,意味着财务报表不是真实公允的呈报,错报是重大且普遍的,这时审计师认为除了这些,没有其他的重要审计事项(KAM)了,审计报告应如下所示:
 
  Example–Qualified‘except for’opinion issued butno key audit matters
 
  The audit ofTurquoise Industries Co has been completed and the auditor discovered amaterial amount of research expenditure which had been capitalised as anintangible asset in contravention of IAS 38 Intangible Assets.
 
  The financedirector refused to derecognise the research expenditure as an intangible assetand include it in profit or loss and the auditor therefore issued a qualified‘except for’opinion on the basis of disagreement with the entity’s accountingtreatment for research expenditure.
 
  The auditor hasconcluded that there are no KAM which require to be communicated in the auditreport.The KAM section of the report will therefore be as follows:
 
  Keyaudit matters
 
  Except for the matter described in the Basis for Qualified Opinionsection,we have determined that there are no key audit matters to communicatein our report.
 
  When the auditor hasexpressed an adverse opinion on the financial statements and communicates KAM,it is important that the descriptions of such KAM do not imply that thefinancial statements as a whole are more credible in light of the adverseopinion.
 
  DISCLAIMER OF OPINION ISSUED
 
  当审计师发表disclaimer opinion时,意味着审计师拒绝发表意见,这时审计报告中不应该包括KAM paragraph。
 
  EMPHASIS OF MATTER AND OTHER MATTER PARAGRAPHS
 
  修改后的ISA 706(Revised)仍然保留了Emphasis of Matter and Other Matter paragraphs。
 
  IAASB认为在一些特定情况下:与Emphasis of Matter paragraph相比,KAM section可以提供更多的信息。
 
  判定为KAM的事项,不能包含在Emphasis of Matter paragraph or an Other Matterparagraph。IAASB强调Emphasis of Matter paragraph不是KAM的替代品。
 
  如果KAM被判断为fundamental to users’understanding,那么审计师需要在KAM section具体说明它的重要性。
 
  如果被审计师判断为fundamental to users’understanding,但又不是KAM,那么需要包含在Emphasis ofMatter paragraph。
 
  对于被审计师判断为fundamental to users’understanding的事项,首先要判断是否是KAM,如果是KMA,那么要在KAM paragraph详细说明它的重要性,如果不是KAM,那么要包含在
 
  Emphasis of Matter paragraph ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CANDIDATES ATTEMPTING P7(INT)
 
  P7的考生需要学会判断哪些事项是KAM,学会讨论审计报告中KAM的内容。
 
  以下是一些典型的KAM举例:IMPAIRMENT TESTING ON GOODWILL(goodwill减值测试)
 
  IFRS 3,BusinessCombinations requires goodwill to be tested for impairment at each reportingdate and the annual impairmenttest may be regarded as a KAM where the carrying amount of goodwill ismaterial.Impairment tests are inherently complex and judgmental and therefore management’s assessment process mayalso be a KAM.
 
  EFFECTS OF NEW IFRSS(新会计准则的影响)
 
  New accountingstandards may be introduced by the International Accounting Standards Board(such as IFRS 15,Revenue from Contracts with Customers)that will involve amaterial change of accounting treatment.
 
  For example,IFRS 15 requires theapplication of a new framework in respect of revenue recognition,and hence theimplementation of IFRS 15 may give rise to the new accounting requirements becoming a KAM as theywill impact on the reporting entity’s financial position and performance.
 
  VALUATION OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS,AND OTHER ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ATFAIR VALUE(金融工具估值,其他资产和负债的公允价值)
 
  Significant measurement uncertainties in some financial instruments(for example those for which quoted prices are notavailable)may give rise to the valuation of financial instruments becoming a KAM because suchvaluations would invariably rely on entity-developed models.
 
  This can alsoapply to other assets and liabilities,particularly those measured using fairvalue techniques which can be complex and subjective.
 
  Please note that theexamples above are included for illustrative purposes and do not form anexhaustive list of all issues that could be identified as KAM.
 
  CONCLUSION
 
  为了给财务报表使用者提供更多更丰富的相关信息,IAASB对审计报告相关准则进行了显著的修改。
 
  F8考生需要有能力识别并描述审计报告中包含的基本要素。
 
  不管是F8,还是P7考生都需要深入理解这些审计准则对于审计师的要求和责任,以及能够判定unmodified/modifiedauditor’s report的格式和内容,以及恰当使用Emphasis of Matter orOther Matter paragraph。
 
  另外,P7考生需要学会判定哪些事项是KAM,或者能够对审计报告中的KAM section进行讨论评估。考试过程中整理的资料(精简版),可以分享给小伙伴,自提,戳:ACCA资料【重点精简版】+内部讲义+解析音频


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